The Science of Tuning Musical Instruments
Tuning is the process of adjusting the pitch of one or many tones from musical instruments until they form a desired arrangement. Pitch is the perceived fundamental frequency of a sound. Instruments basically just produce vibrations, and these vibrations produce the sound that we hear. The vibrations or soundwaves that an instrument produces are measured by hertz (symbol: Hz). One hertz simply means one cycle per second, 100 Hz means one hundred cycles per second, and so on. The average human can hear sounds between 20 Hz and 16,000 Hz. In music and acoustics, the frequency of the standard pitch A above middle C on a piano is usually defined as 440 Hz.